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Geospatial (GIS) resources guide

Geospatial map resources and data sources

Cartographic (Maps) Citation Guide


This guide is based on the citation styles outlined in the book:

 

Cartographic Citations by Suzanne M. Clark, Mary Lynette Larsgaard and Cynthia M. Teague.

 

This guide should be used in conjunction with a standard style guide or manual.  Where a standard style guide has a cartographic citation preference that method should be used.
Also included are links to other cartographic style guides by other sources including bias to various style types.

Basic Generalised Reference format

The format of a reference will depend on the type of map. The following is a list of the most common map reference elements. 

Citation styles will most likely include these elements but not necessarily in this order.

  • Author or editor 
  • Title: almost always in italics or with parentheses. If a formal title cannot be determined, give the map a name and place it in square brackets[ ]  
  • Format: always placed in square brackets[ ]
  • Edition: whether it is 1st, 2nd, ...
  • Scale 
  • Place of publication 
  • Publisher
  • Date: date of publication

Single sheet map

Author. Title [format]. Edition. Scale. Place of publication: publisher , Date.

eg. Department of housing. Vermont [cartographic material] 1:4,375,000.Melbourne,Vic.:Commonwealth Government, 1977.

Map series as a whole

  • Map series: a group of map sheets usually having the same scale and cartographic specifications and collectively identified by the producing agency. May be identified by a name, number or a combination of both.

Author. Series Title [format]. Number of sheets within series. Scale, if not included in the title. Place of publication: Publisher , Date.

eg. Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works. [MMBW 3rd series]| [cartographic material]. [Four hundred]. 1:5,000, Melbourne: MMBW, 1977-1986.

Facsimile or reproduction

Author. Title [format].Scale. Original place of publication: Original Publisher, Original Date of publication. As reproduced by, Place of publication : Publisher, Date.

eg. Speed, John. The kingdome of Great Britaine and Ireland.[facsimile] London: I. Sudbury and George Humble in Popes Head Alley, 1610.As reproduced by London : Geographical magazine, 1986

Inset or ancillary map

  • Inset map: a smaller map placed within the neatline of the primary map.
  • Ancillary map: a smaller map appearing on the same sheet as the primary map but outside the neat line.

Inset or ancillary map author. Inset or ancillary title [format].Scale.On: Map author. Map title [Format]. Edition Scale. Series title and /or number. Place of publication: Publisher , Date.

eg. New Zealand Automobile Association Inc.City centre. [cartographic material]1:15,000 .On: New Zealand Automobile Association Inc.Hamilton city [cartographic material]5th ed., partial rev.1:28,000.AA city maps. Auckland [N.Z.] : New Zealand Automobile Association, 2003.

Diagram / View

  • Diagram: a line drawing which explains rather than represents.
  • View: a pictorial representation of a scene or prospect.

Author. Title [format]. Scale(s). Place of publication: Publisher , Date.

eg. Victoria. Dept. of Sustainability and Environment. Spatial Information Infrastructure. Vicmap 1:50 000 topographic map series - Adjoining Sheet Diagram [cartographic material].1:50,000. East Melbourne : Department of Sustainability and Environment, Spatial Information Infrastructure 2006-

 

Book or atlas

Author. Map Title [format]. Edition. Scale. Place of publication: publisher, Date.

eg. Melway street directory of greater Melbourne [cartographic material]. 1st Ed.. Various Scales. Moorabbin, Vic. : Melway Pub. 1966.

Map within Book, Atlases, Other

Book Author. Book Title. Edition. Place of Publication : Publisher, Date, Page.

Melway street directory of greater Melbourne. 1st Ed.. Various Scales. Moorabbin: Melway Pub. 1966. p44-45.

Map in a journal or periodical article

Author. Map Title [format]. Edition. Scale. In: Article author. Article title, Journal title, Volume ( Date): Page.

eg. Homem, "Lopo Lopo Homen, mapa mundi"[map]. In John Hewitt. "The terrestrial sphere of 'The Spheres' tapestries", The Globe no.64 2010: 32.

Map in a thesis or dissertation

Map Author if different form thesis or dissertation author. Map Title [format]. Scale. 

eg. Been, Jumbuck. Middle of Australia [cartographic material] 1.7=300km. Adelaide, S.A.: Moonks, 1925.

Within Title:

Author. Thesis or dissertation title. Type of paper, Name of University, Date of issuance, page or map number if applicable.

eg. Mckay,Patty, Australia wide open space’s. 2nd ed. Adelaide, S.A. : Blacks,1935. p. 17

Relief model

  • Raised relief map: a topographic map moulded into a three-dimensional form.

Author. Title [format]. Edition. Horizontal scale; Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

eg. Litografia artistica cartografica. Victoria [model]. 1:1,000,000. Florence, Italy. Litografia Artistica Cartografica. [1988]

Globe

  • Globe: a spherical representation of the earth and other planetary body.

Author. Title [format]. Edition. Scale. Place of publication: Publisher , Date.

eg.  Scan-globe, Scanglobe [model]. 1:32,000,000. Denmark: Replogle. [2005].

 

Aerial photographs

  • Aerial photograph: any photograph taken from the air.

Author. "Title or frame number(s)" [format]. Scale. Flight title. Place of publication: Publisher, Date of image collection (NOT date of reproduction). 

Airborne Sensing Corp. "Aerial Photography, Spring 1985. Photos 62 and 63" [aerial photographs]. 1:5,000. Hamilton: Planning and Development Dept., Hamilton-Wentworth Region, 1985.

Satellite imagery

Vector data

  •  

Author if known. Title [format]. Scale if accuracy is known. Place of production: Producer, Date when data collected.

eg. Natural Earth Data.Natural Earth[web site]. 1:10m, 1:50m, and 1:110m scales. 2011

Map created from software

Author if known. Map Title [format]. Scale. Computer database title [format]. Edition. Producer. Date of copyright or production.

eg.  Australian Bureau of Statistics. Cdata2001 [computer map].1:5,000. Census Population and Housing [computer optical disk]. 2001

Map data database

Author if known. Title [format]. Edition. Scale. Place of production: Producer, Date of copyright or production.

eg.  U.S. Geological Survey. The National Map [website].Scale not given.Reston. U.S. Geological Survey.2011.

Software for manipulating spatial data

Author if known. Title [format]. Edition. Scale. Place of production: Producer, Date of copyright or production.

eg.  Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory .EPICsoftware [software].Scale not given.Seattle: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 2006.

Satellite data

Author if known. Title [format]. Scale. Place of production: Producer, Date when data collected.

eg.  Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). ALOS Satellite Data.[image] Scale not given.Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). 2010.

Interactive Reference Map

  • Interactive reference map: a map that you generate from the site, by adding, subtracting, or changing layers.

Author or statement of responsibility. Map Title [map].  Data date if known.  Scale; Name of person who generated map; Name of software used to generate the map or “Title of the Complete Document or Site”. <URL> (date generated).

eg.  Population Reference Bureau. The World at 7 Billion: A PRB Interactive Map [map]. 2011.Scale not given. <http://www.prb.org/Publications/Datasheets/2011/world-population-data-sheet/world-map.aspx#/map/population> (generated August 10, 2011)

Maps generated using Google Earth 

Google, Inc. Your Map Title. [map]. Generated by [Jane Smith] [generated date]; using Google Earth [version]

eg.  Google, Inc. Brunswick East VIC, Australia [map]. Generated by [Jane Smith] {generated August 10, 2011]; using Google Earth [version 6.0.3.2197]

Interactive Thematic Map

Author or statement of responsibility. Map Title [map].  Data date if known.  Scale; Name of person who generated map;  Name of software used to generate the map or “Title of the Complete Document or Site”. <URL> (date generated).

eg.  U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Median Household Income [map]. 2010. "Interactive Map : 2010 Section 8 Income Limits". <http://www.huduser.org/tmaps/incomeLimits/il.html>(generated August 10, 2011)

Real Time Map

Author or statement of responsibility. Title [format].  Date produced and time if known.  Scale.  “Title of Complete Document or Site”.  <URL> (date accessed).

eg. Auinfo.com. Three Time Zones [map]. August 10, 2011. 4:49pm. "Season Dashboard & Day Light Indicator" <http://www.auinfo.com/Australia_Time_zones.asp> (accessed August 10, 2011)

Aerial photograph

Any photograph taken from the air.

Ancillary Map

A smaller map appearing on the same sheet as the primary map but outside the neat line.

Chart

A special purpose map generally designed for nautical or aeronautical navigation or for other particular purposes, in which essential map information is combined with various other data critical to the intended use.

Computer spatial-data files

Files containing digital information which may be used to create maps.

Cross section

A representation of an area as if it were cut off at right angles to an axis.

Diagram

Line drawing which explains rather than represents.

Globe

A spherical representation of the earth and other planetary body.

Hydrographic chart

A chart showing depths of water, nature of the bottom, contours of bottom and coastline, and tides and currents in a given sea and land area. Also called a nautical chart.

Inset map

A smaller map placed within the neatline of the primary map.

Manuscript map

The original drawing of a map also a map which has been reproduced in limited fashion but not published.

Map series

A group of map sheets usually having the same scale and cartographic specifications and collectively identified by the producing agency. May be identified by a name, number or a combination of both.

Model

A general category which denotes any three dimensional representation of an object or geographical area.

Nautical chart

See hydrographic chart.

Neatline

Line separating the body of a map from the map margin.

Orthophotomap

A photo map made from an assembly of orthophotographs, which are aerial photographs that have been corrected for distortion.

Planimetric map

A map which shows only the horizontal positions of features represented, does not show relief.

Profile

A vertical section of the surface of the ground, or of underlying strata, or both, along any fixed line.

Raised relief map

A topographic map moulded into a three-dimensional form.

Satellite image

Image created from satellite data.

Topographic map / or Contours

Map which presents the horizontal and vertical position of the features represented distinguished from a planimetric map by the addition of relief in measurable form.

View

A pictorial representation of a scene or prospect.

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