Flag of the Philippines
See also the Rule of Law and Human Rights in the Philippines page on the Human Rights in ASEAN website.
World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index - Country Profile for the Philippines
The Index provides data on the following dimensions of the rule of law:
» Limited government powers
» Absence of corruption
» Order and security
» Fundamental rights
» Open government
» Effective regulatory enforcement
» Access to civil justice
» Effective criminal justice
» Informal justice
World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index (Full Report)
The Philippine legal system is a mixture of customary usage, Roman (civil law) and Anglo-American (common law) systems, and Islamic law. The legal system is the result of the immigration of Muslim Malays in the fourteenth century and the subsequent colonisation of the islands by Spain and the United States. The civil law operates in areas such as family relations, property, succession, contract and criminal law while statutes and principles of common law origin are evident in such areas as constitutional law, procedure, corporations law, taxation, insurance, labour relations, banking and currency.
For a detailed historical overview of the legal system, see the ASEAN Law Association's guide to the legal system of the Philippines (open access).
The main sources of Philippine law are:
To some extent, customary law also forms part of the Filipino legal system. Art 6, para 2 of the Constitution provides that ‘the State shall recognise, respect, and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions and institutions’.
The primary sources of Muslim law / Shariah are the Quran, Sunnaqh, Ijma and Qiyas.
The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands (about 2,000 of which are inhabited), divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines has a population of 100 million. About 87 major dialects are spoken all over the islands. English and Filipino are the official languages. English is the language of instruction in higher education.
The Philippines is a unitary presidential constitutional republic, with the President of the Philippines acting as both the head of state and the head of government.
For information about the population, economy, geography, history, politics, government and culture of the Philippines, see:
The Republic of the Philippines National Government Portal provides information on government projects and links to all government departments.
The Office of the President website.
The Executive promulgates presidential issuances (Presidential Decrees, Executive Orders, Memorandum Circular, Administrative Orders, Proclamations, etc.), and rules and regulations through its various departments.