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GEOG90021 Conservation and Cultural Environments

Library resources to support students studying GEOG90021

Citation & Reference Management

Learning objectives:

  • To understand why and when citation is necessary
  • To understand the elements of a citation
  • To understand the basics of  Harvard style
  • To be able to create citations for the following reference types: books, journal articles, and web pages

What is Plagiarism? ClickView AU/NZ added May 22 2014

All scholarship builds upon the work of others. When you use the work of others, you must acknowledge it appropriately for several reasons:

  • To make a clear distinction between your own ideas and those of others
  • To give credit to those whose ideas you have drawn upon
  • To avoid plagiarism
  • To allow the reader to trace your sources and asses your interpretation of ideas drawn from them

(Academic Skills Unit, 2013)

Did you know?

It's not just books and journals that you need to cite. Other types of resources include:

  • Images (from books, online, from a database)
  • Online material (eg websites, blogs)
  • Videos (DVD, streamed, online, downloaded)
  • Music (CD, MP3, streamed)
  • Live performances
  • Course readers
  • Lectures
  • Anything that is not your own original work.

There are many styles of citation and referencing. These fall in to two main categories, footnote styles and author-date styles.

Footnote styles feature citation information in a footnote, as well as in the bibliography.

Author-date styles feature in-text references, giving the author and date, with a full citation in the bibliography.

Regardless of the style required, all citations consist of a number of elements, which allow the resource to be clearly identified. Common elements are:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Date published
  • Publisher
  • Place Published
  • Page/s
  • Edition

Additional elements, where relevant, include:

  • Editor/s
  • URL (for web resources)
  • Database name
  • Date accessed (for electronic resources)
  • Last update (for electronic resources)
  • Performer/ director/choreographer

Harvard is an author-date style, with in-text citations and a reference list.

re:cite gives examples of the correct use of Harvard for the University of Melbourne. It shows you how to cite many kinds of resources.

You can also consult some General Style Notes for Harvard.

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