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SEFS Graduate Research Skills

A module for all SEFS graduate students to support and develop their research skills and self-test

Citation & Reference Management

Learning objectives:

  • To understand why and when citation is necessary
  • To understand the elements of a citation
  • To understand the basics of  Harvard style
  • To be able to create citations for the following reference types: books, journal articles, and web pages

What is Plagiarism? ClickView AU/NZ added May 22 2014

All scholarship builds upon the work of others. When you use the work of others, you must acknowledge it appropriately for several reasons:

  • To make a clear distinction between your own ideas and those of others
  • To give credit to those whose ideas you have drawn upon
  • To avoid plagiarism
  • To allow the reader to trace your sources and asses your interpretation of ideas drawn from them

(Academic Skills Unit, 2013)

Did you know?

It's not just books and journals that you need to cite. Other types of resources include:

  • Images (from books, online, from a database)
  • Online material (eg websites, blogs)
  • Videos (DVD, streamed, online, downloaded)
  • Music (CD, MP3, streamed)
  • Live performances
  • Course readers
  • Lectures
  • Anything that is not your own original work.

There are many styles of citation and referencing. These fall in to two main categories, footnote styles and author-date styles.

Footnote styles feature citation information in a footnote, as well as in the bibliography.

Author-date styles feature in-text references, giving the author and date, with a full citation in the bibliography.

Regardless of the style required, all citations consist of a number of elements, which allow the resource to be clearly identified. Common elements are:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Date published
  • Publisher
  • Place Published
  • Volume and Issue numbers
  • Page/s
  • Edition

Additional elements, where relevant, include:

  • Editor/s
  • URL (for web resources)
  • Database name
  • Date accessed (for electronic resources)
  • Last update (for electronic resources)
  • Performer/ director/choreographer

The library's interactive site re:cite gives examples of the correct use of some of the main reference styles including Harvard and APA 6. It shows you how to cite many kinds of resources.

Harvard is an author-date style, with in-text citations and a reference list.

When including an in-text citation, include the author and the date in brackets.

EG: The albatross has been used in a metaphorical sense in sea-faring folklore (Sutherland 2013).

If you have referred to the author's name in running text, you only need to include the date in brackets.

EG: The symbolic significance of the albatross has been recognised by Sutherland (2013).

You can also consult some General Style Notes for Harvard.