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Wine and Viticulture

Guide for students studying Wine and Viticulture at the University of Melbourne.

Why is Citing Important?

Citing the sources you use is important because if you draw upon other people's work in your writing and research and do not acknowledge those sources you can be accused of plagiarism. Citations also allow your readers to follow up sources you have referred to enabling the sharing of ideas. More information on why citing is important.

All scholarship builds upon the work of others. When you use the work of others, you must acknowledge it appropriately for several reasons:

  • To make a clear distinction between your own ideas and those of others
  • To give credit to those whose ideas you have drawn upon
  • To avoid plagiarism
  • To allow the reader to trace your sources and asses your interpretation of ideas drawn from them

(Academic Skills Unit, 2013).


University of Melbourne (2011). Academic honesty and plagiarism, retrieved from

Managing Your References

Reference management programs (also known as citation managers or bibliographic management software) provide many useful features that can help you with your research such as:

  • Storing and organising your references, and
  • Generating citations and bibliographies in the style you prefer.

As there are a number of different programs available it is important to choose the one that suits your needs. The University of Melbourne has licensed access to:

  • EndNote -  Using Endnote you can create a database of references, and then create a bibliography of your work in the citation style you require.

            Additional Endnote referencing styles can be found here:

  •  RefWorks - Reference management website.  Registration required.

 Other reference management programs you might consider include:

  • Mendeley - Reference manager with desktop and web applications.  Store PDFs and share articles with colleagues. Freely available service. Also an academic network service. More information

 See the Managing References Subject Research Guide for further programs under the Other Programs tab.


Australian Veterinary Journal Style Guide

The full AVJ Style Guide is available online.  

Examples below are adapted from Instructions for authors for submissions to the journal of the Australian Veterinary Association, published by Wiley InterScience.

The Australian Veterinary Journal prefers a numbered referencing style.



Each time a work is cited in your paper, it should be numbered in the order it appears, using superscript Arabic numerals immediately after any punctuation.  If you cite the same work more than once, the same citation number should be used:

One-three works:  e.g. Several studies have attempted to evaluate emotional states in farm animals.1,2,3

Three or more works:  e.g. 4-7  

Construct the reference list in the same numerical sequence of the references in the text. 




Book: Single author      

Senger PL.  Pathways to pregnancy and parturition. 2nd edn. Current Conceptions, Washington, 2003.

Book: Two – Five authors            

Hoffbrand AV, Pettit JE. Essential Haematology.  4th edn. Blackwell Science, Massachusetts, 2001.

Book: Six or more

Fossum TW, Dewey CW, Horn CV et al. Small animal surgery. 4th edn. Elsevier, Missouri, 2013.

Book: Editor

Devlin TM, editor.  Textbook of biochemistry: with clinical correlations. 6th edn. Wiley-Liss, New Jersey, 2006.

Book: Chapter:

Palmer C, Sandoe P. Animal ethics. In: Appleby MC, Mench JA, Olsson IAS, Hughes BO, editors. Animal welfare. 2nd edn. CABI, Oxford, 2011:1-12.


DeLahunta A, Glass E. Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology [ebook]. Saunders/Elsevier, Missouri, 2009.

Journal article: Print

Bowers J, Slocombe R. Auricular chondrosis in a horse. Aust Vet J. 2009;87:219-221.

Note that journal titles must be abbreviated without full stops.

Journal article: Electronic

Chen H, Smith G, Zhang S et al. Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature 2005;436:7048. Retrieved 26 October 2012.

Journal Title Abbreviations

Depending on the citation style you are using you will need to use either full journal titles, or approved journal title abbreviations in your bibliography.

A useful guide to finding this information is: