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Energy Engineering

A research guide for Energy Engineering students at the University of Melbourne

Referencing and Citing

Why referencing and citing is important

 

If you draw upon other people's work in your writing and research and do not acknowledge those sources, you can be accused of plagiarism.‚Äč

This is a brief introduction to referencing your research.  For a more comprehensive coverage on citing and referencing go to the

'Referencing and using sources' Academic Skills page.

 

Examples of referencing and citing in Harvard and APA styles

When writing reports, you may be instructed to cite references such as journal articles and books in a particular style.  There are many citation styles.  Re:cite is an online referencing tool produced by the University of Melbourne Library which shows you how to cite in various styles.  

Find below examples of two commonly used styles: Harvard and APA.  Both use an author-date system; however, there are numerous differences in their presentation requirements.  This is demonstrated in the following comparison.  

Below are the details of a journal article as presented in an online database.  

Article found in database

Article cited in the Harvard style:

Here is an example of in-text citing (the reference is indicated by authors and year of publication in the appropriate place within the text): 

The claim that large proportions of North American and other populations are deficient in vitamin D is based on misinterpretation and misapplication of the Institute of Medicine reference values for nutrients (Manson et al. 2016).

In the reference list this same reference would be presented in full, and exactly like this: 

Manson, JE, Brannon, PM, Rosen, CJ & Taylor, CL 2016, 'Vitamin D deficiency - is there really a pandemic?', New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 375, no. 19, pp. 1817-20.

Article cited in the APA style

Here is an example of in-text citing (the reference is indicated by authors and year of publication in the appropriate place within the text): 

The claim that large proportions of North American and other populations are deficient in vitamin D is based on misinterpretation and misapplication of the Institute of Medicine reference values for nutrients (Manson, Brannon, Rosen, & Taylor, 2016).

In the reference list:

Manson, J. E., Brannon, P. M., Rosen, C. J., & Taylor, C. L. (2016). Vitamin D deficiency - is there really a pandemic? New England Journal of Medicine, 375(19), 1817-1820.

In Re:cite look at examples of citations and read the relevant style notes to ensure that you present citations correctly in your reports.

re:cite. Your guide on how to reference and cite properly