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ABP Study and Research Guide

This guide will help you with your studies in the Bachelor of Design, MSD and beyond.

Why reference?

In your work at university you are expected to:

  • acknowledge the authors and creators of the ideas and material that has informed your work, and
  • show that you have used reputable sources of information. 

These acknowledgments are normally presented in the format of a particular referencing style.

If you fail to acknowledge the work of others correctly, you may be guilty of plagiarism, even if you have done so unintentionally. 

The University of Melbourne produces a wide range of resources to ensure that you understand the requirements of referencing, including: 

Referencing styles

Re:cite is the University of Melbourne Library's guide to referencing. It includes general style notes for a number of referencing styles and provides guidelines showing how to format different types of sources, such as books and journal articles.

The ABP Library provides additional support showing how to format other source types frequently used in ABP / MSD, such as images and maps, for two referencing styles: 

  •  APA (American Psychological Association style)
  •  Chicago 17A (Chicago style with footnotes)

Referencing with APA

Please note, this guide has been updated to reflect the changes between the 6th and 7th editions of the APA Publication Manual.

The most significant change is that a place of publication is no longer required for books, book chapters and any other items that follow those formats.

Style Notes

 

APA 7th edition style consists of author and date in brackets (Author, Date) after the cited text within the body of the work, and a bibliography at the end of the paper. 

 

Examples:

In text

Robin Boyd claims that many Australian buildings are ugly (Boyd, 1960). 

 

Reference List

The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of the first author's family name.

Boyd, R. (1960). The Australian ugliness. Cheshire.

Hurlimann, A. (2007). Is recycled water use risky? An Urban Australian community's perspective. Environmentalist, 27(1), 83-94.

Willis, J. & Hanna, B. (2001). Women architects in Australia. Australian Institute of Architects.

 

The format for apps is:
Author A.A. OR Name of Group. (Date). Title of work (Version No.) [Mobile app]. Publisher. URL
eg.

Onemda VicHealth Koori Health Unit & Murrup Barak  (2017). Billibellary's Walk [Mobile app]. App Store. https://apps.apple.com/au/app/billibellarys-walk/id967331790

 

Intext Citation
(Koori Health Unit & Murrup Barak, 2017)

 

  • You must include the revision number or letter (if there is one) as well as the drawing number. This can be a number or letter after the drawing number (ie. Drawing no.A101 rev. a) or part of the drawing number (ie. Drawing no.A101a)
  • In text citation will be (Author, Date) 
    • eg The plans for the Melbourne School of Design Building feature the exposed services (Wardle, 2014).

 

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of drawing. (Drawing/Plan no.xx and revision number or letter [if provided]). [Type of drawing]. Name of Subject LMS site or http://xxxxx

 

NADAAA and John Wardle Architects. (2014, January 10). University of Melbourne, Parkville campus, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning locality plan. (Drawing no.AR0100 rev.A). [Construction drawing]. http://archive.abp.unimelb.edu.au/objects/pdfs/Post-construction/Drawings/Architectural%20drawings%20-%20as-built/AR-0100-A.pdf


 

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (Year). Title of publication: Subtitle (cat. no. XX).  http://xxxxxx (url of specific document)

​Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007). Basic community profile: Brisbane (Statistical Division). http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/2006Census5.nsf/LookupAttach/3052006+Census+Basic+Community+Profile+and+Snapshot29.02.081/$File/20010-BCP-Brisbane-Qld%20(Statistical%20Division).zip.


In text citation is (Author, Date)

eg.

The community profile for Brisbane indicates that more cycling infrastructure is required (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007).

 

Data Sets

Author, A. A. (year). Name of dataset [material type]. https://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

or if no DOI

Author, A. A. (year). Name of dataset [material type]. http://www....... 

 

Example:

Wyndham City Council. (2019). Wyndham City Council - Playgrounds [dataset]. https://data.aurin.org.au/dataset/vic-lgovt-wyndham-cowyndham-wyndham-playgrounds-na 

 

In text citation is (Author, Date) 

eg.

The Wyndham City Council data indicates that more playgrounds are needed in Tarneit (Wyndham City Council, 2019).


 

In text citation is (Author, Date)

eg. Late Roman architecture featured many distinctive columns (Fletcher, 1961).

 

Printed Book

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition). Publisher.

Fletcher, B. (1961). A history of architecture on the comparative method. Athlone Press.

 

ebook

If a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, use that instead of the URL.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. http://xxxxx

or 

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. https://doi: 10.xxxx/xxxxxxxxxx 

Yianoudes, S. (2016). Architecture and adaption: From cybernetics to tangible computing. http://www.ebooks.com/2519145/architecture-and-adaption/yiannoudes-socrates/

or

Schunck, R. (2014). Transnational activities and immigrant integration in Germany: Concurrent or competitive processes? https://10.1007/9783-3-190-3928-2

 

Edited Book

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher

Tomlinson, R. (Ed.). (2012). Australia's unintended cities: the impact of housing on urban development.&CSIRO

 

Book Chapter or Section

Author, A.A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or section. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of the chapter referred to). Publisher.

Yang, X., Day, J., & Han, S. S. (2015). Urban Peripheries as Growth and Conflict Spaces: The Development of New Towns in China. In H. Zhang (Ed.), Population Mobility, Urban Planning and Management in China (pp. 95-112). Springer International Publishing.


 

    When citing from a one-off proceeding, use the same format as for a book or book chapter.
    For regularly published proceedings use the same format as journal or periodical articles

 

Online Report/Document

Name of Department/Agency. (Year). Title of document: Subtitle (Report No. xxx [if available]). http://xxxxx

Department of Environment, Land and Planning. (2015). Plan Melbourne review 2015: Ministerial Advisory Committee report.  https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/ehq-production-australia/45189c582e1cf1f4e6b12125a1ebef13d682729f/documents/attachments/000/028/064/original/MAC_2015_Final_Report.pdf?1445230381

 

Printed Document

Name of Department/Agency. (Year). Title of document: Subtitle. Publisher

Standing Committee on Public Works. (1982). Report relating to the proposal for Stage 1 construction of new works and upgrading of existing facilities for the New Tactical Fighter Project at Fishermens Bend, Melbourne (eleventh report of 1982). Australian Government Publishing Service.



In text citation is (Author, Date) 

eg.  Development plans for Fisherman's Bend have included facilities for military aircraft (Standing Committee on Public Works, 1982).


There are two distinct types of referencing for images. One for images that are reproduced in the text and one for images referred to in the text.

 

Image you have reproduced


When referencing images that are reproduced:
1. Information goes around the figure, including:
- a note containing any descriptive text needed
- full citation details of the image
- a copyright statement
2. An entry is provided in the reference list.

NOTE: When referencing images on visual works, such as posters, you may prefer to just have a figure number and caption under the image, and have a separate figure list after your reference list. While this is not part of APA style, it may be more appropriate for visual works. Check with your lecturer before proceeding.

 

Digitized image on museum/archive website


In Text:
Figure Number
Title of Image

image placeholder
Note. Details about the image: Creator, Title, URL, Copyright statement.

 

Reference List:

Author, A. (Date of Publication) Title of Image. Organisation providing access. URL

 


Example:
In Text:
Figure 1
Newman College, University of Melbourne

Image Placeholder
Note. Image is taken prior to restoration of spires in 1981-82. Note the cross which surmounts the highest pinnacle. From Newman College, University of Melbourne, Swanston Street, Parkville, by W. Sievers, 1975-1982, State Library of Victoria (http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/4088222). Copyright 2020 by Wolfgang Sievers.

 

 

Reference list:

 

Sievers, W. (1975-1982). Newman College, University of Melbourne, Swanston Street, Parkville. State Library of Victoria. http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/4088222<

 


Image from website

 

In Text:
Figure Number
Title of Image
Image Placeholder    
Note. From Title of Page by Author, A, Author, B of website, Date, Name of website (URL). Copyright statement.

 

Reference list:

 

Name of web page. (2008). Title of Image. Name of Website. URL

 

Example:
Figure 2.
St Pauls Cathedral, South Facade

image placeholder
Note. From St Pauls Cathedral Precinct by Victorian Heritage Register, 2008, Victorian Heritage Database (https://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/815). Copyright by Heritage Council Victoria.

 

Reference list:

 

Victorian Heritage Register. (2008). St Pauls Cathedral Precinct. Victorian Heritage Database. https://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/815

 


 

Image from a book

 

In Text:
Figure Number
Title of Image
Image Placeholder    
Note. From Title of Book (edition number if needed) (p. page number), by A. Author and B. Author, Year,  Publisher. Copyright statement.

 

Reference List:
Author, A., & Author B. (Year). Title of book (edition number if needed). Publisher.

 

Example:
Figure 3.
Pre-Roman Italy
Image Placeholder
Note. From A History of Rome Down to the Reign of Constantine (3rd ed.) (p. 2), by M. Cary and H. H. Scullard, 1975, Macmillan Press. Copyright 1975 by representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard.

 

Reference list:

Cary, M., & Scullard, H.H. (1975). A history of Rome down to the reign of Constantine (3rd ed.). Macmillan Press.

 


 

Image from a journal article

 

In Text:
Figure Number
Title of Image
Image Placeholder    
Note. From Title of Article, Title of Journal, Vol. Number(issue number), p. page number, by A. Author and B. Author, Year,  Copyright statement.

Reference List:
Author, A., & Author B. (Year). Title of Journal article, Title of Journal, Vol. No. (issue number number). pp.

 


 

Image you have referred to in the text


Images referred to, but not reproduced are referenced like textual works, with an in text citation and an entry in the reference list.

 

Digitized image on museum/archive website

 
In text citation: 
(Website name, date, or n.d. if no date is supplied) 

 

Reference list: 

Website name. (Year). Title of image [Description of type of image]. Source of Image. URL 

 Example:

In text citation: 
(Sievers, 1975-1982) 

Reference list: 

Sievers, W. (1975-1982). Newman College, University of Melbourne, Swanston Street, Parkville [Photograph]. State Library of Victoria. http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/4088222 

   


Image from a website 

 

In text citation:
(Victorian Heritage Register, 2008) 

Reference list: 

Victorian Heritage Register. (2008). St Pauls Cathedral Precinct [Photograph]. Victorian Heritage Database. https://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/815 

 


 

In text citation is (Author, Date)

for articles with more than three authors, name the first author in the in text citation, then use et.al.

eg. Public transport users tend to do trips in a linear fashion (Currie and Delbosc, 2011).

 

Electronic article with DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers. https://doi.org/.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Currie, G., & Delbosc, A. (2011). Exploring the trip chaining behaviour of public transport users in Melbourne. Transport Policy, 18(1), 204-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.08.003

 

Electronic journal article without DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.  http://xxxxxxxxx

Moholy-Nagy, S. (1959). Frank Lloyd Wright's testament. College Art Journal, 18(4), 319-329. http://www.jstor.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/stable/774026 

 

Printed journal article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers. 

Chhetri, P., Han, J. H., Chandra, S., & Corcoran, J. (2013). Mapping urban residential density patterns: Compact city model in Melbourne, Australia. City, Culture and Society, 4(2), 77-85.


 

Lectures

If you are citing your own lecture notes, they should follow the format of Personal Communication.

If they are retrievable, they should be treated as a conference paper. 

 

Personal Communications

Personal communications include letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations, emails, and messages sent through social media and from discussion lists.

Citations for this type of material are not included in the reference list because they cannot be found by the reader. Cite personal communications in the text only. Adding "personal communication" to the citation within the text indicates that it is that kind of information and flags that it won't be included in the reference list.

Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible:

eg. M. Day (personal communication, July 30, 2000) finds the film meets several criteria ...

     In an interview, Joseph Reed explained that "We developed the plan in consultation with the librarians." (J. Reed, personal                         communication, January 23, 2019)


 

In text citation is (Author, Date)

eg. Mapping of Tasmania indicates that many of the roads are designated as highways (Van Tongeran, 2010).

 

Map retrieved online 

Author. (Date). Map Title [map]. Scale (if known).  http://xxxxxx

​Van Tongeran, A. (2010). Map of Tasmanian Roads [Map].  http://www.tasphotoalbum.com/VerylargeFotos/StartLarge.html

 

Google Map or other interactive map

Author. (Date). [Description of map]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxxx

Google. (2016). [Map of Melbourne Dockland]. Retrieved March 1, 2016 from https://goo.gl/maps/mz2WFtGf7TS2

 

Map from a Book or Atlas

Author of map. (Date). Title of map [map]. Scale if known. In Author of book. Title of book, page number. Publisher. 

  • If author of map is unknown:

Title of map [format]. (Date). Scale if known. In Author. Title of book (page number). Place of publication: Publisher.

Map 6- housing opportunities [map]. (1997). In City of Melbourne. City plan '97 draft: the City of Melbourne's municipal strategic statement (p.52). Melbourne City Council.


Map from a Periodical

Map Author if known. Map title [map]. Scale if known. In Article Author/s. (Date). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. https://doi.xxxx (if known) or http://xxxxxx (if found online)

Landsat T. M. The study area of Lake Baiyangdian in the North China Plain [map] In Lu, S., Ouyang, N., Wu, B., Wei, Y., & Tesemma, Z. (2013). Lake water volume calculation with time series remote-sensing images. International Journal Of Remote Sensing34(22), 7962-7973. https://doi:10.1080/01431161.2013.827814


Atlas

Author. (Date). Title. (Edition if given). Publisher.

Middleton, N. (2015). An atlas of countries that don't exist: a compendium of fifty unrecognized and largely unnoticed states. Macmillan

  • If no author is given:

Title. (Edition if given). (Date). Place of Publisher

The Phaidon atlas of contemporary world architecture. (2nd ed.). (2004).  Phaidon.


Topographic Map

Author. (Date). Sheet title from series [format]. Edition. Scale. Series, number. Publisher.

Smyth, R. B., Murray, R. A. F., MacKay, A. F., Couchman, T., & Shepherd, R. l. (Cartographers). (1873).  Sandhurst gold field [sheet map]. Department of Mines.


Map via LMS 

Author. (Date). Map Title [map]. Scale if known. Retrieved from Name of subject LMS site

NearMap. (2016). Federation Square Quadrant [map]. Scale 1:2500. Retrieved from University of Melbourne Changing Melbourne LMS site.

  • If date is unknown use (n.d.). If there is no title, put short description in square brackets. 

Map that you have modified

Adapted from Author, A. (Date). [Description of map]. Retrieved Month Day, Year from http:xxxxxxx

Adapted from Google. (2016). [Melbourne Docklands]. Retrieved March 1, 2016 from https://goo.gl/maps/mz2WFtGf7TS2


    Only original content from social media sites should be cited, ie. not a link you found on Pinterest. Always cite the content directly.
    The title of a social media post can the first up to twenty words of the post.
    Hashtags, emojis, non-standard spelling etc should be included/replicated as far as possible.
    If an emoji can't be reproduced, provide the name in square brackets eg. [sad face emoji]
    Use square brackets to describe audiovisual content in a post, after the text of the post
eg.
msdsocial [@msdsocial] (2020, April 6) @kushagra_jhurani interpreting what we imagine is becoming a common scene [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B-oDNIfFMM0/

 

Tweet & Instagram

Author, A.A. [@username] OR Name of Group [@username], (Date), Content of the post up to the first twenty words. Site name. URL.

ABC News [@abcnews]. (2017, December 20) The building that is being replaced was itself designed as a commercial building.[Film clip] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/abcnews/status/943413731828023296

 

In-text citation

 

(ABC News, 2017)

 

Facebook post

Author, A.A. OR Name of Group OR Username, (Date), Content of the post up to the first twenty words. Site name. URL.

Architecture AU  (2020, January 28)An interview with Tristan Wong (SJB) and Jefa Greenaway (Greenaway Architects), the creative directors for Australia’s pavilion at the 2020 Venice.[Image attached] Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/architectureau/photos/a.344001262288704/2889544631067675/?type=3&theater

 

In-text Citation

 

(Architecture AU, 2020)

 


 

Standards

In text citation (Author, Date) 

eg. The standard for bar chairs indicates that the minimum strength required is 440psi (Standards Australia, 2015)

 

Entry in reference list

Author (Year). Standard title: Subtitle (standard number). URL

Standards Australia (2015). Bar chairs in reinforced concrete: Product requirements and test methods (AS/NZS 2425:2015).  https://www-saiglobal-com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/online/autologin.asp

 

Technical Documents

In text citation is (Author, Date) 

eg.  The Werribee growth area extends beyond the limits of initial development (Ministry for Planning and Environment, 1989).

 

Entry in Reference List;

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.

  • This format can be used for issue briefs, working papers and other corporate documents. Include the appropriate document number where available.
  • If there is a corporate author, use in place of Author.

Ministry for Planning and Environment. (1989). The Werribee growth area: opportunities for future development: a technical report. Melbourne: Ministry for Planning and Environment.

 

For online reports, identify the publisher in the retrieval statement unless the publisher is also identified as the author.

Anderson, M. (2008). Commercial viability of masonry products from CRT panel glass: An investigation of the commercial viability of producing masonry units from recycled CRT panel glass and container glass (green and amber) Report no. GLA0035-006) Retrieved from http://www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/Commercial_viability_of_masonry_products_from_CRT_panel_glass_Final_Report.5726.pdf.

 


 

In text citation is (Author, Date)

eg. Architecture in Melbourne emerged from a traditional of condoned eclecticism (Goad, 1992).

 

Unpublished thesis

Author, A. A. (Year). Title [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis]. Institution issuing degree.

Goad, P. (1992) The modern house in Melbourne,1945-1975 [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Melbourne.

 

Thesis available through a database 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Name of institution]. Name of Database. (Accession or Order No.)

Havenhand, L. K. (2007). Ideas as interiors: Interior design in the United States 1930-1965 [Doctoral dissertation, Virginai Commonwealth University]) ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (UMI No. 3302980)

 

Thesis from an institutional database

Author, A. A. (Year). Title [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Name of Institution]. URL

Parker, M. D. (2004). The management of tree replacement in mature urban landscapes [Doctoral dissertation, University of Melbourne]. https://minerva-access.unimelb.edu.au/handle/11343/38746

 

Thesis available on the web

Author, A. A. (Year). Title [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Institution issuing degree]. http://xxxxxx

Weitkamp, G. (2010). Capturing the view : a GIS based procedure to assess perceived landscape openness [Doctoral dissertation, Wageningen University].  http://edepot.wur.nl/136722  


 

In text citation is (Author, Date

eg. Residents and shopkeepers of Lygon St elucidate many perspectives on the development of the area (Pricolo and Swan, 2014).

 

DVD/Video

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year of release). Title of production [Format]. Place of origin: Production company.

Pricolo, A. (Producer) & Swan, S., Pricolo, A. (Directors). (2013). Lygon Street : Si Parla Italiano [3-DVD Limited Collectors Edition]. Two Taps Productions.

 

Online video (eg YouTube, Vimeo, TED)

Presenter, A. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video file].  http://xxxxx

Aschwanden, G. (2014, July 10). Infrared Timelaps [Video file].  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uJox-U7HHi8

 

Streamed video (from a database)

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title [streaming video].  URL/DOI/Name of Database.

​Kahn, N. (Producer). (2013). My architect : a son's journey, directed by Nathaniel Kahn [streaming video],  http://unimelb.kanopystreaming.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/video/my-architect. 


 

In text citation is (Author, Date

eg. Residents and shopkeepers of Lygon St elucidate many perspectives on the development of the area (Pricolo and Swan, 2014).

 

Note: Use 'Retrieved from and date ONLY when content is likely to change over time

Webpage with an author

Author, A. (Date of publication). Title of webpage.  URL

Heritage Victoria. (2015). Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victoria. http://delwp.vic.gov.au/planning/heritage-victoria

 

Webpage with no listed author

Title of page. (Publication Date).  URL

Traffic chaos in Melbourne CBD after truck roll over took eight hours to clear (2016). http://www.9news.com.au/national/2016/02/01/07/35/crash-in-docklands-avoid-area

 

Wikipedia 

Title of Web Page (Publication Date). In Wikipedia.  Month Day, Year from URL

London Sewerage System (n.d.) In Wikipedia.  March 1, 2016 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_sewerage_system.

 

Online reference work

Author, A. (Publication Date). Title of article or segment. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia. (xxth ed.). doi: xxxxxxxxxx [OR: Retrieved from URL]

Francesconi, G. (2010). Carnegie Hall. In K. T. Jackson (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of New York City. (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://www-jstor-org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/stable/j.ctt5vm1cb.8

 

Online reference work with no author

Title of article or segment. (Publication date). In Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia. (xxth ed.). doi: xxxxxxxxxx [OR: Retrieved from URL]

Domed mosques. (2009). In J. M. Bloom and S. S. Blair (Eds.), The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. doi: 10.1093/acref/978019509911.001.0001

 

Blog Post 

Author, A. (Year, Month day). Title of post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL

McFayden, K. (2015, November 12). Sustainable prefab beach house in Blairgowrie [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.designhunter.net/sustainable-prefab-beach-house-blairgowrie/

 

Podcast

Author, A. (Role). (Year, Month day). Title [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL.

Kernebone, F. (Presenter). (2014, April 5). Designs that help cure illness [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/bydesign/designs-that-help-cure-illness/5349892. 

 

Online forum post

Author, Initial. [or Alias.] (Year, Month day). Title of discussion thread [Online forum comment]. Message posted to Web address

​Normand, P. (2015, October 27). Vertical movement systems in housing complexes [Online forum comment]. Message posted to http://archinect.com/forum/thread/139591044/vertical-movement-systems-in-housing-complexes.

 

PDF on a web site

Author. (Year of Publication) TitleRetrieved from URL

Department of Environment, Land, Water & Planning. (2014). Plan Melbourne: Metropolitan Planning Strategy. Retrieved frohttp://www.planmelbourne.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/131362/Plan-Melbourne-May-2014.pdf

 

Annual report on a web site

Author. (Year of Publication). Title. Retrieved from URL

Lend Lease. (2015). 2015 Annual Report. Retrieved from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MzA2MDM1fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1&cb=635791934762289484.

 

PowerPoint slides available online

Author, Initial. (Year of Publication). Title [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from URL

Stead, N. & Clark, J. (2013). Equity and Diversity in the Australian Architecture Profession: Women, Work and Leadership, Australian Research Council Linkage project, 2011-2014 [PowerPoint slides]Retrieved frohttp://www.security4women.org.au/wp-content/uploads/Pay-equity-architecture-final-short1.pptx.


Referencing with Chicago 17A (Footnotes)

 

Style Notes

The Chicago 17A footnote style consists of footnotes at the bottom of each page and a bibliography at the end.

 

Footnotes

The first footnote for a particular source contains all details. The punctuation varies from that of the entry in the bibliography (see examples)

For subsequent footnotes use a shortened form.

1. Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method, (London: Athlone Press, 1961), 45.

For subsequent footnotes use a shortened form.

2. Fletcher, A History of Architecture, 150.

 

Bibliography

The bibliography is arranged in alphabetical order of the first author's family name.

Boyd, Robin. The Australian Ugliness. Melbourne: Cheshire, 1960.

Fletcher, Banister. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. London: Athlone Press, 1961.

Hurlimann, Anna. "Is recycled water use risky? An Urban Australian community's perspective." Environmentalist, Vol. 27, no.1(March, 2007): 83-94.

Willis, Julie and Bronwyn Hanna. Women Architects in Australia. Red Hill, A.C.T.: Australian Institute of Architects, 2001.

 

 

Architectural Drawings/Plans

  • You must include the revision number or letter (if there is one) as well as the drawing number. This can be a number or letter after the drawing number (ie. Drawing no.A101 rev. a) or part of the drawing number (ie. Drawing no.A101a)

Footnotes:

Note number: Author, Title of Drawing, Drawing/Plan no.xx and revision number or letter [if provided], (Year, Month Day), URL.

3. NADAAA and John Wardle Architects, University of Melbourne, Parkville Campus, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning Locality Plan, Drawing no.AR0100 rev.A, (2014, January 10), http://archive.abp.unimelb.edu.au/objects/pdfs/Post-construction/Drawings/Architectural%20drawings%20-%20as-built/AR-0100-A.pdf.

Bibliography:

Author. Title of Drawing. Drawing/Plan no.xx and revision number or letter [if provided]. (Year, Month Day). URL.

NADAAA and John Wardle Architects. University of Melbourne, Parkville Campus, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning Locality Plan. Drawing no.AR0100 rev.A. (2014, January 10). http://archive.abp.unimelb.edu.au/objects/pdfs/Post-construction/Drawings/Architectural%20drawings%20-%20as-built/AR-0100-A.pdf.


 

Australian Bureau of Statistics Data

Footnote:

Note Number. Name of Group/Organisation, Title of Work, Catalogue number, Place of Publication, Date of Publication, page numbers, DOI or URL.

eg.

      2. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Basic community Profile: Brisbane (Statistical Division), Canberra, 2007, http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/305011110?opendocument 

Bibliography:

Name of Group/Organisation, Title of Work, Catalogue number, Place of Publication, Date of Publication, page numbers, DOI or URL.

eg.

Chicago abs bibliography example

 

Data Sets

 

The Chicago Manual of Style does not provide any guidelines for data sets.

The essential information in citing a dataset is:

  • "Author: Name(s) of each individual or organizational entity responsible for the creation of the dataset."*
  • "Title: Complete title of the dataset, including the edition or version number, if applicable."*
  • "Date of Publication: Year the dataset was published or disseminated."*
  • "Publisher and/or Distributor: Organizational entity that makes the dataset available by archiving, producing, publishing, and/or distributing the dataset."*
  • "Electronic Location or Identifier: Web address or unique, persistent, global identifier used to locate the dataset (such as a DOI). Append the date retrieved if the title and locator are not specific to the exact instance of the data you used."*

Footnote

Author first name, Family name. Name of dataset [material type]. Date. Publisher. DOI or web address

First note:

21. Wyndham City Council. Wyndham City Council - Playgrounds [dataset]. 2019, AURIN Portal, https://data.aurin.org.au/dataset/vic-lgovt-wyndham-cowyndham-wyndham-playgrounds-na 

Second and subsequent notes:

23. Wyndham City Council, Playgrounds, 2019.

Bibliography

Author family name, First name. Name of dataset [material type]. Date. Publisher. DOI or web address

Wyndham City Council. Wyndham City Council - Playgrounds [dataset]. 2019, AURIN Portal, https://data.aurin.org.au/dataset/vic-lgovt-wyndham-cowyndham-wyndham-playgrounds-na 


 

Printed Book

Footnotes:

       Note number. Author, Title, (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number/s.

First entry:

1. Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method, (London: Athlone Press, 1961), 45.

Second and subsequent entries:

2. Fletcher, A History of Architecture, 150.

Bibliography:

Author (surname, given name). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Fletcher, Banister. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. London: Athlone Press, 1961.

 

ebook

Note: If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Footnotes:

      Note number. Author, Title, (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page numbers, URL (or database name).

First entry:      

2. Socrates Yianoudes, Architecture and Adaptation: From Cybernetics to Tangible Computing, (New York: Routledge, 2016), http://www.ebooks.com/2519145/architecture-and-adaptation/yiannoudes-socrates

Second and subsequent entries:

3. Yianoudes, Architecture and Adaptation.

Bibliography:

Author (Surname, Given name). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. URL/DOI/Database name.

Yianoudes, Socrates. Architecture and Adaptation: From Cybernetics to Tangible Computing. New York: Routledge, 2016. http://www.ebooks.com /2519145/architecture-and-adaptation/yiannoudes-socrates/

 

Edited or Translated Book

Footnote:

      Note number. Author, Title of Book, ed. (or trans. for translator) Editor or Translator Name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), page(s).   

First entry:

5. Wright, Frank Lloyd, An American Architecture, ed. Edgar Kaufmann (New York: Horizon Press, 2009), 67. 

Second and subsequent entries:

6. Wright, An American Architecture, 112.

Bibliography:

Author (Surname, Given name). Title. Edited by Editor. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Wright, Frank Lloyd. An American ArchitectureEdited by Edgar Kaufmann. New York: Horizon Press, 1955.

 

Book Chapter or Section

Footnote:

        Note number. Author(s) of chapter, "Title of chapter," in Title of Book, ed. Editor(s) (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page numbers.

First note:

4. Xin Yang, Jennifer Day and Sun Sheng Han, "Urban Peripheries and Growth and Conflict Spaces: the Development of New Towns in China," in Population Mobility, Urban Planning and Management in China, ed. Tai Chee Wong, Sun Sheng Han and Hongmei Zhang (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015), 95-97.

Second and subsequent notes:

5. Yang, "Urban Peripheries," 96.

Bibliography:

Author(s) of chapter (Surname, given name for first author). "Title of chapter." In Title of Book, edited by Editor(s), page numbers of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Yang, Xin, Jennifer Day and Sun Sheng Han. "Urban Peripheries and Growth and Conflict Spaces: the Development of New Towns in China." In Population Mobility, Urban Planning and Management in China, edited by Tai Chee Wong, Sun Sheng Han and Hongmei Zhang, 95-112. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.


 

Conference paper (online)

Footnotes:

Note number. Author, "Title of Conference Paper", (paper presented at Name of Conference, Place of Conference, Month Days, Year): page numbers, accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

First note:

5. Masa Nogucchi, Hasim Altan and Liangxiu Han, "Occupants’ Behaviour And The Impact On Home Energy Consumption And Indoor Environments: Demonstrated Through An Affordable House Selected In Scotland". (Paper presented at the Grand Renewable Energy International Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 28 July - 1 August, 2014), 67-69, accessed January 30, 2018, http://www.grand-re2014.org/eng-conf/conference/index.html.

Second and subsequent notes:

6. Noguchi, et al, Occupants' Behaviour, 67.

Bibliography:

Author (Surname, Given name), "Title of Conference Paper." Paper presented at Name of Conference, Place of Conference, Month Days, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

Noguchi, Masa, Hasim Altan, and Liangxiu Han. "Occupants’behaviour and the Impact on Home Energy Consumption and Indoor Environments: Demonstrated through an Affordable House Selected in Scotland." Paper presented at Grand Renewable Energy International Conference. Tokyo, Japan, 28 July - 1 August, 2014. Accessed January 30, 2018, http://www.grand-re2014.org/eng-conf/conference/index.html.

 

Note:

Conference proceedings published as a book - these are cited as you would cite a chapter in a book - see the Book Chapter section in the Books tab.

Regularly published proceedings (ike a journal) can be treated as a journal article.


 

 

Online Government Document 

Footnote:

     Note Number. Name of Group/Organisation, Title of Work (Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Date of Publication), page number(s), URL or DOI.

First note:

6. Ministerial Advisory Committee, Plan Melbourne Review 2015: Report by the Ministerial Advisory Committee (State Government of Victoria, 2015), 56,  http://www.planmelbourne.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/377133/MAC_2015_Final_Report.pdf

Second and subsequent notes:

7. Ministerial Advisory Committee, Plan Melbourne, 55.

Bibliography:

Name of Group/Organization. Title of Work. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name. Date of Publication. URL or  DOI.

Ministerial Advisory Committee. Plan Melbourne Review 2015: Report by the Ministerial Advisory Committee. State Government of Victoria, 2015. http://www.planmelbourne.vic.gov.au/_data/assets/pdf_file/0006/377133/MAC_2015_Final_Report.pdf


 

The Chicago Manual of Style Online 17 recommends the following when dealing with images:

Information about paintings, photographs, sculptures, or other works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than in a note or bibliography. If a note or bibliography entry is needed, list the artist, a title (in italics), and a date of creation or completion, followed by information about the medium and the location of the work. For works consulted online, add a URL.

  • Images are not usually included in the bibliography. Instead, they have a caption, and the full citation goes into a list of figures, which is included after the bibliography.
  • Give each image a figure number, numbering them in the order they appear in your work. You may abbreviate figure as fig.
  • The list of figures includes the full citations for each image, in the order they appear in your work.
  • The caption should include the figure number, name of creator (if known), title of the image, and date (if known).

 

Artwork in gallery or museum

Caption:

Figure number. Artist, Title of Image, year.

Fig 7. John Brack, Collins St, 5p.m., 1955.

Entry in list of figures:

Figure number. Artist (surname, given name). Title of image. Year. Medium. Repository / Gallery / Museum, City. (Add URL if found online)

Fig. 7. Brack, John. Collins St, 5p.m.. 1955. Oil on canvas. The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia, Melbourne. http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/3161

 

Image found on website

Caption:

Figure number. Creator. Title of Image. Year. 

Figure 2. LUSAS. West Gate Bridge Prior to the 2011 Upgrade. 2013. 

Entry in list of figures:

Figure number. Creator (Surname, Given Name). Title of Image. Year. Format of image. URL

Figure 2. LUSAS. West Gate Bridge Prior to the 2011 Upgrade. 2013. Photograph. https://structurae.net/photos/213395-west-gate-bridge-prior-to-the-2011-upgrade

 

Social media photo or graphic

Caption:

Figure number. Creator, Title of Image, Year.

Fig. 14. Brian Roy, Chinatown Car Park Conversion, 2018

Entry in list of figures:

Figure number: Creator Surname, First Name. Title of Image. Format of image. Month Day, Year, URL

Fig. 14. Roy, Brian. Chinatown Car Park Conversion. Photograph. January 20, 2018. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=665575960350&set=gm.1703645876341074&type=3&theater&ifg=1

 


 

NOTE: for a journal article with one - three authors, all author names are provided in the footnote AND in the bibliography. If there are four or more authors, all author names are provided in the bibliography. The footnote will include the first author, followed by et al.

Subsequent references to the same article can be shortened (see examples below).

Journal article with a DOI or URL

Footnote:

       Note number.  Author, "Title of Article", Journal Title Volume Number, issue number (Month, Year): page numbers cited, DOI or URL.

       8. Graham Currie and Alexa Delbosc, "Exploring the Trip Chaining Behaviour of Public Transport Users in Melbourne", Transport Policy 18, no.1 (January 2011): 208, doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.08.003.

       9. Currie and Delbosc, "Trip Chaining Behaviour," 209-210.

Bibliography:

Author, "Title of Article", Journal Title Volume Number, issue number (Month, Year): page numbers of the article, DOI or URL.

Chicago journal with doi bibliography example

Currie, Graham and Alexa Delbosc, " "Exploring the Trip Chaining Behaviour of Public Transport Users in Melbourne,"    Transport Policy 18, no.1 (January 2011): 204-210, doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.08.003.   

 

Journal in print or PDF

Footnotes:

    Note number.  Author, "Title of Article", Journal Title Volume Number, issue number (Month, Year): page numbers cited.

    10. Prem Chhetri et al "Mapping Urban Residential Density Patterns: Compact City Model in Melbourne, Australia," City, Culture and Society 4, no.2 (June 2013): 80.

    11. Chhetri et al., "Mapping Urban Residential Density Patterns," 81.

Bibliography:

Author, "Title of Article", Journal Title Volume Number, issue number (Month, Year): page numbers.

Chicago journal in print bibliography example

 

Chhetri, Prem, Jung Hoon Han, Shobit Chandra and Jonathan Corcoran, "Mapping Urban Residential Density Patterns: Compact City Model in Melbourne, Australia," City, Culture and Society 4, no.2 (June 2013): 77-85.


 

Lectures

Lectures aren't retrievable, so should not be cited and included in a bibliography.

If they are retrievable, they should be treated as a conference paper.

 

Personal Communications

 

Personal communications include letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations, emails, and messages sent through social media and from discussion lists.

 

Personal communications are usually cited in the text or in a note only, not in the bibliography. Most such information can be referred to simply as a conversation, message, or the like; the medium may be mentioned if relevant.

eg.  1. Joseph Reed, email to author, 23 January, 2019


 

Map viewed in a book or in print

Footnote:

     Note number. Name of cartographer (if known), cartographer, Title of the Map [or a description], year of creation (if different to published year), scale and size (if known), in Title of Source (Place Published: Publisher, Year), page number (if available).

     12. Map 6 - Housing Opportunities, in City Plan '97 Draft: the City of Melbourne's Municipal Strategic Statement (Melbourne: Melbourne City Council, 1997), 52. 

     13. Map 6, 52.

     26. Lewis W. Brownlie, cartographer, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 160 x 120 cm, (Melbourne: City Maps Illustrated, 2019).

     27. Brownlie, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

 

Bibliography:

Name of cartographer (if known), cartographer. Title of the Map [or a description], year of creation (if different to published year), scale and size (if known). In Title of Source. Place Published: Publisher, Year.

Map 6 - Housing Opportunities. In City Plan '97 Draft: the City of Melbourne's Municipal Strategic Statement. Melbourne: Melbourne City Council, 1997.

Brownlie, Lewis W., cartographer. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 160 x 120 cm. Melbourne: City Maps Illustrated, 2019.

 

Google Map

Footnotes:

Note number. Name of cartographer (if known), cartographer, Description, scale and size (if known), accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

    13. Google, Google Map of Docklands, accessed March 1, 2016 https://goo.gl/maps/mz2WFtGfTS2.

    14. Google Map of Docklands.

Bibliography:

Name of cartographer (if known), cartographer, Description, scale and size (if known), accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

Google, Google Map of Docklands, accessed March 1, 2016 https://goo.gl/maps/mz2WFtGfTS2.

 

Static Online Map

Footnotes:

       Note number. Name of cartographer (if known), cartographer, Name of Map, Description, year, scale and size (if known), Source or collection, URL.

       6. Val Morgan and Sons, Morgan's Main Roads Map: Melbourne and Suburbs, Showing Shortest Routes, [1937], 53 x 40 cm, State Library of Victoria, http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/135984.

       15. Morgan's Main Roads Map.

Bibliography:

Name of cartographer (if known), cartographer. Name of Map, Description, year, scale and size (if known). Source or collection. URL.

        Val Morgan and Sons, Morgan's Main Roads Map: Melbourne and Suburbs, Showing Shortest Routes, [1937], 53 x 40 cm. State Library of Victoria. http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/135984.

 


 

When citing social media, a footnote is usually sufficient. If the item is critical to your research, then it should also be included in your bibliography.

 

The format of a footnote is:
     Note No.. Author First Name, Author Family Name OR Group/Organisation name (username), "Title of post (or up to 160 characters of the post)," Format of post, Date. URL.

 

eg.

   12. RIBA (@RIBA), "Ever wondered what architecture school was like a century ago?" Tweet, March 13, 2020, https://twitter.com/RIBA/status/1238121392673042432.


Bibliography entry

The entry in the bibliography is only necessary if the citations are a critical part of your research.
The format is:
Author of Post (handle where available). "Text of Post." Location/description of Post. Date of post. URL.

 

eg.

Davidge, Tania (@taniadavidge). "Inside #stkildatownhall" (Instagram post). December 17, 2019.
      https://www.instagram.com/p/B6KobmwlxKl/ .


 

Standards

Footnotes:

     Note Number. Name of the organisation, Title of the Standard, edition or other identifying number or label, (publication information Month Day, Year), URL.

     14. Standards Australia, Bar Chairs in Reinforced Concrete: Product Requirements and Test Methods, AS/NZS 2425:2015, (published June 29, 2015), https://www-saiglobal-com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/PDFTemp/osu-2018-01-31/5870787384/2425-2015.pdf.

     15. Bar Chairs in Reinforced Concrete.

Bibliography:

Name of the organisation, Title of the Standard, edition or other identifying number or label, Publication information, URL. 

Chicago standards bibliography example

Standards Australia, Bar Chairs in Reinforced Concrete: Product Requirements and Test Methods, AS/NZS 2425:2015. Published June 29, 2015. https://www-saiglobal-com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/PDFTemp/osu-2018-01-31/5870787384/2425-2015.pdf.

 

Technical Documents

Technical documents, such as working papers and briefs can be  treated in much the same way as a dissertation or thesis  or a lecture, paper, or other presentation


 

Titles of theses and dissertations appear in quotation marks—not in italics; otherwise, they are cited like books. The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title.

Footnotes:

     Note number. Author, "Thesis Title" (Type of thesis, Academic Institution, Date), page number, URL if accessed online OR name of database and (identification number).

     18. Matthew David Parker, "The Management of Tree Replacement in Mature Urban Landscapes" (PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 2004), p56. http://hdl.handle.net/11343/38746.

     19. Parker, "Management of Tree Replacement."

Bibliography:     

Author, "Thesis Title" Type of thesis, Academic Institution, Date,  URL if accessed online OR name of database and (identification number if provided).

Chicago thesis bibliography example

Parker, Matthew David. "The Management of Tree Replacement in Mature Urban Landscapes." PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/11343/38746.


 

DVD/Video

NOTE: Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included. Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number. Ancillary material, such as critical commentary, is cited by author and title

Footnote:

     Note number. "Indexed Scene,"Title of DVD/Video, directed by xx xx (Place: Production or Distribution Company, Year), media type.

     14. Lygon Street: Si Parla Italiano, directed by Shannon Swan (Melbourne: Hi Gloss Entertainment, 2013), DVD.

 

Bibliography:

Director, dir., Title of DVD/Video. Place: Production company, Year. Media/URL

Swan, Shannon, dir., Lygon Street: Si Parla Italiano. Melbourne: Hi Gloss Entertainment, 2013. DVD.

 

Online Video (You Tube, Vimeo etc)

Footnote:

    Note number. "Title." Source video, timing, posted by Name, Date, Year. URL.

    15. "Infrared Timelaps," YouTube video, 0:48, posted by Urban Analytics, July 10, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uJox-U7HHi8.

Bibliography:

"Title." Source video, timing, posted by Name, Date, Year. URL.

"Infrared Timelaps," YouTube video, 0:48, posted by Urban Analytics, July 10, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uJox-U7HHi8.

 

Streamed Video from a Database

Footnote:

    Note number. "Title" Collection  [directed] by xx xx (Publisher, Year), streaming video, timing,  URL.

    16. "My Architect: A Son's Journey" by Nathaniel Kahn (Kanopy, 2003), streaming video, 117 minutes,   http://unimelb.kanopystreaming.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/video/my-architect.

Bibliography:

"Title." Collection.  [Directed] by xx xx (Publisher, Year). Streaming video, timing.  URL.

"My Architect: A Son's Journey." By Nathaniel Kahn (Kanopy, 2003). Streaming video, 117 minutes,             http://unimelb.kanopystreaming.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/video/my-architect.


 

As much of the following information as possible should be included when citing websites.

Footnotes:

    Note number. "Title of page," Title of whole website, Owner or sponsor of the site, Publication date OR last updated OR last modified date (if none of these can be determined, use access date), URL.

    17. "Heritage Victoria", Department of Environment and Primary Industries, State Government of Victoria, 2018, https://www.heritage.vic.gov.au/

Bibliography:

Owner  of the site. "Title of page." Title of whole website. Publication date OR last updated OR last modified date (if none of these can be determined, use access date). URL.

State Government of Victoria. "Heritage Victoria", Department of Environment and Primary Industries. 2018. https://www.heritage.vic.gov.au/


Incorporating sources

You can incorporate information from other sources into your own work using direct quotes, paraphrases and summaries.

A direct quote uses the exact words of another author. 

 

A paraphrase express another author's idea in your own words. 

 

A summary provides a short statement expressing the main point of another author's idea in your own words. 

Sheehan, N.W. (2011). Indigenous knowledge and respectful design: an evidence-based approach. Design Issues 27(4), 68-80. 

 

For some tips to help you rewrite the ideas of other authors in your own words, watch Paraphrasing ideas in your writing (video)
For more information about integrating sources in your writing, refer to Incorporating sources in academic writing (pdf)

Your voice

In addition to drawing on a range of academic sources in your work, it's important to include your own thoughts and ideas. 

You should use 'your voice' in your academic writing to indicate to readers which ideas are yours, and provide your critical evaluation of the ideas of other authors. 

One way to express your own voice is to directly praise an author's work (e.g. by describing it as 'influential'). 

 

Alternatively, you could note the limitations of a piece of work (e.g. 'the application of this approach ... in other contexts may meet different challenges'). 

 

Sheehan, N.W. (2011). Indigenous knowledge and respectful design: an evidence-based approach. Design Issues 27(4), 68-80. 

 

Another option is to compare the findings of different authors, perhaps identifying which piece of work is more relevant to your topic. 

Keep in mind that the strength of your critical evaluation also depends on how you support your ideas with additional evidence or logical reasoning, not only on how you express your ideas

To discover more ways to distinguish your ideas from the ideas of other writers, watch Critical literacy (video) or refer to Critical literacy (pdf)
For more ways to develop your own voice, refer to Voice in academic writing (pdf)
For a collection of many words and phrases that could be used to express your voice, refer to the following sections of the University of Manchester Academic Phrasebank: